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Research Article - ASEAN Journal of Psychiatry (2021)

PEDAGOGICAL AND MANAGERIAL LEADERSHIP IN TEACHING PERFORMANCE: A SYSTEMATIC REVIEW

1Escuela de Postgrado, Universidad César Vallejo, Trujillo, Peru
2Unidad Ejecutora 306 UGEL, Cajabamba-Cajamarca, Peru
3Institución Educativa N° 20184, San Martín, Alto Morropon, Piura, Peru
4Institución Educativa N° 821167, Chochoguera, Cajabamba, Cajamarca, Peru

*Corresponding Author:

Teresita Merino-Salazar, Escuela de Postgrado, Universidad César Vallejo, Trujillo, Peru, Email: [email protected]

Received: 22-Nov-2021 Published: 07-Jan-2022

Abstract

This article of review of theoretical information aims to carry out this exploratory research that covers the variables of managerial pedagogical leadership and good teaching performance is to describe and explain what is the relevance of managerial pedagogical leadership in good teaching performance? The relevance of pedagogical leadership comes to be the role of the management staff to manage effective and efficient strategies that manage to interpose quality teaching to students through interaction with their teachers, which being in synchronization with institutional objectives and goals achieve good teaching performance. For the collection of information, the search for these variables was made through some keywords such as leadership, management, performance, teacher and educational management, where various documents could be collected both in indexed journals, scientific articles, theses and reference texts. In addition to various opinions of different authors that support the analysis of bibliographic review of this review article recognizing the relevance of managerial pedagogical leadership in good teaching performance.  Finally, it is possible to conclude that there is an important relationship with respect to pedagogical leadership on good teaching performance, since through this research it was possible to determine that leadership in a director of an Educational Institution plays a primary role for the educational quality of its students, which is to instruct all its teaching staff with the institutional objectives set at the beginning with the achievement of goals and objectives.

Keywords

Managerial Leadership, Performance, Teacher, Educational Management

Introduction

Academic school education over time has always been considered of great importance for the vast majority of countries in the world, being one of the most important pillars for the development of a nation in favor of good citizenship and good economic, social and educational development. An efficient education always goes hand in hand with leaders capable of bringing suitable teachings to students, which is why managers are educated to obtain a pedagogical leadership that is accompanied by their teaching staff for a good performance of these same in their teaching tasks for their students, in addition, the improvement in education is something that is constantly developed year after year which can be promoted by the educational system of each country or through the educational research of the directors and the teaching staff of an Educational Institution.

Pedagogical leadership is that which not only encompasses the relationship between the different protagonists of the educational environment, but also has a more extensive activity by continuously promoting the development of capacities, performance and well-being [1]. It should be said that this leadership does not fall only on a person, speaking directly from the director of a house of studies, but also from his teaching staff who with hard work manage to train day after day to obtain a good teaching performance either through their managers or their own studies in order to provide quality teaching in the students of the different schools nationally and internationally.

In Latin America, there are still considerable gaps in terms of educational quality [2]. Among these gaps are the lack of student social inclusion for providing the same educational rights to children and adolescents in a country, which causes illiteracy in many of them. In addition to a lack in critical teaching where the student is stimulated by obtaining reasoning about the different situations of life, as well as the creation of value projects, creativity, innovation and critical spirit from a young age. That is why it is so important that there is pedagogical leadership from the top of a school; that is, that it starts from the director, coordinator, tutor and teachers of these same. This is because managers assume the leading role of the actions of their staff.

Contreras, after conducting a bibliographic study on educational leadership, manages to define pedagogical leadership as “a management and conduct of educational institutions and/or pedagogical processes, whose fundamental axis of action is to achieve and guarantee quality learning and the well-being of all students" [3]. In a complementary way, Brägger et al. mention that one of the key tasks in effective school management is to encourage the teaching staff to develop their skills. With this it is understood that a good director not only creates a good climate and recognition among his teachers but also motivates interest in each person who works and learns in his educational center, whether they are the students or teachers [4].

The board of directors are the leaders of each organization as the Educational Institutions come to be, and their leadership must be preserved and transferred to the academic-student context, that is, to bring that leadership to their teachers who have the direct responsibility of providing quality teaching to their students so that they can interact in the value of teaching-learning [5]. Similarly, Bolívar infers that leadership consists essentially of creating, nurturing and developing the capacities of teachers and students so that they are inter-related to high-value teaching and in turn, can reflect on their own learning methods [6]. Dubs, stated that pedagogical leadership is not only about controlling or supervising, but is at the service of the school's teacher development [7].

As mentioned before, not everything depends directly on the director, but also on the good performance of the teachers of a house of study, good teaching performance according to Minedu defines "the domains, competencies and performances that characterize good teaching and that are required of every basic education teacher in the country" [8]. On the other hand, for Martínez et al. they refer that "teaching performance is a concept that is built according to multiple aspects that determine it" [9]. Against subtracting good teacher performance there is poor teacher performance; however, a good professional teacher should not aim to obtain results from poor performance. Thus, teaching performance refers to the learning obtained throughout different situations that the teacher carries in the classroom, maintaining an interaction with their students through the process of teaching-learning [10].

The managerial pedagogical leadership is of utmost importance throughout the Educational Institution, promoting the desire to learn and continue forming knowledge, the teaching staff is no stranger to this leadership because their good teaching performance depends on it, having to apply different strategies that may be of value to students in the learning path they take throughout their different student degrees [11]. However, the problematic reality comes to occur when there are different factors within the school that cause delaying this leadership by managers, as well as generating poor performance in the teaching of education professionals. Among these factors can be found the following: having a bad infrastructure, deficiency of educational means and materials, teacher outdated, lack of institutional commitment, labor indifference, absence of empathy, monotony, use of initiatives and proposals for better teaching performance, breakdown of human relations, groups of teachers that generate sub-groups that are in favor of the director, group of teachers against the director and who generate influences in parents to go against the management directive, indifferent teachers who give them the same and in that way you cannot work collaboratively, with initiative for a good institutional educational management, all this can be part of the problem that does not allow an educational quality in the students of the institutions that can be affected by some of these factors mentioned.

As a result of this problem, this review study is carried out with the aim of describing and explaining what is the relevance of managerial pedagogical leadership in good teaching performance? This in order to know and meditate on the value of pedagogical leadership by managers and the role they come to fulfill through it in their teaching staff of the educational institution for which they come to be responsible. Understanding that one complements the other; since, if there is a bad managerial pedagogical leadership, there will also be a bad teaching performance, but if on the contrary there is a good direct pedagogical leadership, there will also be a good teaching performance, this either in both national and private educational institutions. For this reason, this bibliographic review article is made where relevant information will be contrasted to both variables.

Leadership

According to the definition of the RAE, leadership is "condition of leader", "exercise of the activities of leader", and "situation of superiority in which an institution or organization, a product or an economic sector is located, within its scope". On the other hand, the European School of Excellence, mentions that "leadership is an influence and motivation in others, it transforms people and groups, it is an opportunity and it is a potential". Consequently, it can be said that leadership is the action of offering with example the virtues of having knowledge about something and empathy for others to learn the same thing and practice it.

Rojas refers that the leadership of a direct must have "a high level of professional knowledge about leadership tools and educational management, and at the same time exemplary attributes both professional and personal" [12].

Alvarado expresses that the management staff "to achieve favorable and transcendent results, in the conduct of its staff could assume the following strategies of action in front of its subordinates: empower, motivate, train or dismiss" [13].

Bolívar mentions that the directors of an educational institution must become facilitators and promoters of the development of professional teaching as leaders instead of bosses, because "leadership must contribute to creating a shared vision of the school, get to act according to that vision, and redistribute supports and resources that can help the school community move around that vision" [14].

Gimeno indicates that the director, from the point of educational leadership "what he does is to establish himself as a representative of the organizational culture, while, from that propitious position, in the sense of encouraging and allowing new restructurings to be manifested as a result of the development of these cultural forms". Therefore, the good performance of the leadership has an impact on the good work of all the staff in a study center [15].

Pedagogical leadership comes to be according to Minedu "the influence exerted by the members of an organization, guided by managers and various interest groups, to advance towards the identification and achievement of the objectives and vision of the educational institution". Likewise, Murillo, points out that more than a transactional leadership entails a transformative leadership, since it is not only based on the achievement of already established objectives, but these are changing according to the situation of the educational center to improve the education offered and the teaching practices in the classroom [16,17].

Leadership Styles

For what comes to be the field of education, among the studies are different managerial styles, one of the most outstanding is the proposal of Kurt Lewin, due to its influence in the educational field. This author proposes three styles of leadership exercise [18]:

•Authoritarian leadership. It is where the leader takes full responsibility in decision making. It is a one-way leadership practice in which trainees only abide by the guidelines set by the leader.

•Democratic leadership. Through this type of leadership there is collaboration between all members encouraging their participation.

•Laissez faire leadership. The leader is not responsible for his role, nor for the group he leads and lets them take their own initiative.

In the research carried out on leadership and education, they are not completely linked to teacher leadership, or only a small part is highlighted despite the fact that teachers are the starting point for a born leader by having to train their students on the way to select their profession in the future there are different types of leadership that come to be present in different organizations, both business and educational [19].

Types of leadership

Transformational leadership, where according to Maraboto he mentions that "it is a leadership style in which leaders encourage, inspire and motivate employees to innovate and create changes that will help grow and shape the future success of the company [20]." Demonstrating that, with learning, education and training, the followers of the transformational leader will also be able to be followers with the acquisition and practice of the knowledge learned. Likewise, Gestión refers that "this type of leadership was introduced by James MacGregor Burns, who defined it as one developed by individuals capable of changing the motivations, perceptions and expectations of those around them". In short, with this type of leadership it is possible to transform the vision you have about something [21]. 

The transactional leadership, where according to Orellana mentions that "it is a management style that uses incentive mechanisms and / or sanctions to stimulate the good performance of the organization" [22]. That is for the achievement of goals or objectives; certain prizes are raised with the will of this being a motivating driver for the different employees. As a contribution to what is cited in this paragraph by the first author, the European School of Excellence expresses that "here motivation occurs through punishments and rewards. The leader, rather than a motivator, is a supervisor who is responsible for reviewing and rewarding and punishing accordingly. In this way, thanks to this type of leadership, most people look for an incentive to just start doing things at a certain time.

This is how both types of leadership are of utmost importance for what becomes the characteristic of a leader in favor of the organization he is leading. On the other hand, outside of these two types of leadership is the managerial pedagogical leadership, which is the most relevant for this review study, since it is part of the board of directors of an Educational Institution.

Instructional leadership, according to Moral refers that "it focuses its attention on the relationship of direct influence that leaders exert for the improvement of teaching and learning processes" [23]. In addition, through this model, three dimensions of leadership are covered according to Hallinger which Gajardo et al. mention that they are [24,25]:

•The first dimension, defining the mission of the school, refers to the responsibilities of the principal in the security with which the areas of the schools will manage their resources during the school year. As well as the dissemination in a clear and precise way the goals set by the educational institution.

•The second dimension, managing the teaching program, focuses on the coordination and management of instruction and curriculum. This dimension seeks the use by all the staff that makes up a school house of studies, both in the stimulation, supervision and control of the teaching-learning path, achieving a broad knowledge of the instructional program that the institution has proposed.

•The third dimension, developing a school climate for positive learning, this is a critical role assumed by the leaders of the school center, to organize the structures and work processes. In addition, it is linked to the fact that schools with great success create academic pressure through the development of high standards and expectations of a social culture that seeks to promote and reward the learning that is carried out consecutively.

Distributed leadership, according to Martínez et al. this type of leadership "responds to a context in which organizational changes converge, attention to the dynamics of social interactions, the configuration of networking, the horizontal and vertical flow of knowledge, information and communication [19]." Likewise, in order to lead an organization that fosters human talent, it is vitally important to be managers who manage to exercise distributed leadership [26]. This type of leadership focuses on two key aspects, infers that these are:

Encourages interactions in the IE: The director of an Educational Institution leaves aside the characteristics of an individual leader and is responsible for relating links between the members of an educational school, which may be made up of; management team, hierarchical staff, administrative staff, teachers, families, and other people outside the IE.

Share leadership in the IE: The director creates conditions so that other members of the educational community can occasionally carry the role of leader according to the functions or events that arise.

Pedagogical leadership, according to Leithwood et al. defines it as "the task of mobilizing and influencing others to articulate and achieve the shared intentions and goals of the school" [27]. Contreras indicates that the interest in leadership in schools "was born within the framework of research on leadership in general and on school effectiveness, but it crystallizes and deepens in more autonomous works, only towards the end of the last century. It is in this way that pedagogical leaders "support their teams by showing respect and consideration for their personal feelings and needs" [28].

For this type of leadership there are different procedures and actions, which are carried out by the pedagogical leader in educational institutions that have good results (in the case of Chile), according to a study conducted by the Ministry of Education are the following:

•They adjust style to the needs (context), various styles are educated.

•They are good at managing and leading changes in the institution in their discipline.

•They are good stewards and executors of more concrete and practical tasks.

•Autocratic (they find it easier to diagnose and resolve).

•More rigorous and controlling (supervise, evaluate, monitor the teaching work).

•More progressive, innovative, willing to change; accept challenges, concerned about updating, renewal, etc.

•Greater projection or vision of the future (vision of context, planning, organization).

•More technical. Less expertise, technical mastery.

•More optimistic.

•Work in a team, share and delegate tasks, collaborative work.

Leiva et al. mention that "the specialized literature has highlighted the high degree of influence evidenced by the pedagogical leadership of school leaders in the teaching exercise." Likewise, it also refers that "however, various studies have corroborated that the exercise of a leadership focused on the pedagogical, is hindered by the existence of certain bureaucratic-administrative routines", among others that turn out to cause deficiency in the initiative of direct pedagogical leadership [28].

Aparicio mentions that it is necessary to carry out an analysis creating new knowledge about what becomes managerial leadership and the implications of the changes that, over the course of 2007 to 2020, have been appreciated at the policy level, especially on the trends to lead to a strengthening of the educational leadership model, which has a comprehensive work assumption and focused on effective practices for each school context [29].

Martínez citing Anderson et al. through the paraphrase, refers that "school directors are the main responsible for the creation of the work environment within schools" [30], Dueñez mentions that managerial leadership in Peru is an issue that since 2017 has been covered by the Ministry of Education, through the training and empowerment of directors and deputy directors, in order to promote leadership, administrative, pedagogical and social [31].

Sánchez also infers that managerial leadership in Peru, from public policies, has been promoted in order to improve the performance of teaching. However, in the face of the last health crisis, there were some difficulties and therefore, deficiencies in the good management of digital skills, thus harming a good level of their teaching performance through remote work [32]. For these reasons, educational institutions must provide answers with leadership models that are adaptable to the different educational events that may occur over time [33].

Teaching Performance

After having conducted an exploratory study on what comes to be both leadership, pedagogical leadership, and direct leadership, it will be complemented with the following information that focuses on good teaching performance.

Dueñez in his thesis to obtain the doctoral degree mentions that "taking into account that managerial leadership is a process of interaction carried out by the director with the entire educational community, primarily with teachers to guarantee good performance and the achievement of student learning" [34,35]. Minedu defines good teaching performance as a process where the teacher manages to interact with his students inside or outside the classroom [8].

Likewise, Minedu also defines it as a process where the teacher exercises his pedagogical work, demonstrating ideal abilities to exercise his profession as a teacher. Mateo defines teaching performance as teaching performance in their pedagogical practices (planning, conduction, evaluation and others) [36]. Martínez et al. define that teaching performance "is a concept that is built according to multiple aspects that determine it. In a plain way, when the 'term of 'performance' is addressed, reference is made to an action, which, in this particular case, corresponds to the actions or practices inherent in the teaching profession" [37].

Escribano expresses that "teaching performance as a human and relational element in education is essential". Within the teaching work as a concept, it refers to and adds the logic that gives meaning to their profession as teachers, the different functions that are rooted in their condition as a teaching professional, as well as the set of personal qualities and conditions that are presented as considerable and/or necessary points for the adequate teaching of students:

•The deep domain and full of important and pertinent value within the system, with updated contents on the subject to be taught.

•The necessary and constantly updated preparation that must be possessed based on a high knowledge within the field of educational sciences, with special value in pedagogy, psychology, didactics, as well as the methodology of educational research.

•Good development of professional skills in the communication field, such as the systematic use of information and communication technologies.

•The need for an ethical element, with high expert and particular motivations in the exercise of their professionalism demonstrating with quality, in an administration consecutively, both in the process and in the results.

•The indispensable knowledge of the particular conditions of each context of the social field where he knows how to develop his professionalism well.

Minedu mentions that "domain is understood as an area or field of teaching that groups a set of professional performances that favorably affect the learning of students", which are four, among which are:

•Domain I. Preparation for student learning: according to Daza "it is related to preparation for teaching."

•Domain II. Teaching for student learning: according to Daza it "describes the development of teaching in the classroom and school."

•Domain III. Participation in the management of the school articulated to the community: according to Daza "it refers to the articulation of school management with families and the community" [38].

•Domain IV. Development of professionalism and teaching identity: according to Daza "it includes the configuration of the teaching identity and the development of its professionalism".

Minedu expresses that the framework of good teaching performance "constitutes an agreement, technical and social between the State, teachers and society around the competences that teachers in the country are expected to master, in successive stages of their professional career" [8]. These competencies are divided into nine, which are within each domain:

Domain I. Preparation for student learning

Competence 1: Understands the characteristics of all its students and their environment, the disciplinary contents it instructs, the pedagogical approaches and techniques, in order to promote high-level skills and their integral formation.

Competence 2: Manage teaching in an educational way, supporting coherence between the teachings you want your students to learn.

Domain II. Teaching for student learning

Competence 3: Promote an ideal climate for learning, joint democracy and diversity in all its facets, forming critical and intercultural people.

Competence 4: Guides the teaching process with management of disciplinary content and the use of appropriate techniques and resources so that all students can learn critically and reflectively.

Competence 5: Consistently rates the learning obtained by students according to the objectives previously set by the educational institution.

Domain III. Participation in the management of the school articulated to the community

Competence 6: Active participation is established, through a democratic, critical and collaborative attitude for a correct management of the school, contributing to institutional projects to generate quality learning.

Competence 7: It constitutes bonds of values, such as respect, collaboration and co-responsibility with the external individuals of the IE (families, community and other institutions of the State and Civil Society).

Domain IV. Development of professionalism and teaching identity

Competence 8: Reflects on their practice and institutional experience, developing consecutive learning methods both individually and collectively.

Competence 9: Exercises his profession from the ethics of respect for the primary rights of people, demonstrating to be a person of integrity by having values such as honesty, justice, responsibility and commitment to his social work.

Within the teaching work, there is also ICT, better known as information and education technologies that add value to good teaching performance within their functions, Fuentes et al. mentions that "these functions of the teacher are supported by a range of technological resources, the same that can solve the requirements of teachers in their continuous work [39].

The author, Peré proposes the following functions of ICTs in education.

•Means of expression and for creation

•Communication channel.

•Instrument for processing information.

•Source of information.

•Organization and management of the centers, tutoring.

•Interactive resource for learning, leisure.

•Cognitive instrument.

Fuentes et al. refers that information and communication technologies "in the educational process, covers a fairly wide field of applications that can largely solve the demands of teachers [39]."

In this framework of study, pedagogical leadership comes to influence what is good teaching performance, added to this information and communication technologies, which serve as support to exercise a good work of teaching their students, especially in situations such as what caused the covid-19, leading to teach classes by virtual means, it is where the leader of the student center together with the educational system of the country in which the situation is carried out, manage to create suitable strategies to continue bringing quality teaching to students and that they are not harmed perhaps by the lack of adaptability on the part of the directors and teaching staff of their educational institution. Likewise, Rosas mentions that "the relationship between good management or managerial leadership and the performance of teachers in the classroom is important" [40].

In this sense, it is that this research study was made, to deepen the information obtained from both variables in a historical context from time to present; aiming to describe and explain what is the relevance of managerial pedagogical leadership in good teaching performance? Leiva et al. mention that "the variety of research on teacher accompaniment determines this process as a cohesive and integrative strategy". Through the bibliographic review, the pedagogical leadership manages to promote good teaching performance.

This review article has used the analytical, synthetic and comparative method in a sample of analysis of 19 documents at the rate of strata such as: Indexed journals 06, scientific articles 06, thesis 04 and reference texts 04, outside the conceptual and bibliographic framework made by the author, each with the descriptors that have allowed the analysis and description of its content and information described in Table 1 entitled documentary research consulted in database.

Table 1: Documentary research consulted in database.

Type Title Author Year Descriptors
Indexed journals Pedagogical leadership of managers and teaching performance. Rafael H et al. 2019 Managerial pedagogical leadership and teaching performance
Pedagogical leadership and teaching performance in an educational institution of metropolitan lima. Rosas H et al. 2016 Managerial pedagogical leadership and teaching performance
Pedagogical leadership, new perspectives for teacher performance. Casas M et al. 2019 Pedagogical leadership and teaching performance
Teacher leadership and its performance in Ecuadorian basic education. Bladimir S et al. 2017 Pedagogical leadership and teaching performance
Improving educational quality from pedagogical leadership: A systematic review. Cerón S et al. 2021 Pedagogical leadership
Professional performance of teachers in basic education: A systematic review. Barrientos L et al. 2021 Teaching performance
Scientific articles Management leadership and educational change: Analysis of a University-School collaboration experience. Aparicio M et al. 2020 Managerial leadership
Pedagogical leadership: From supervision to teacher accompaniment. Leiva G et al. 2019 Pedagogical leadership
Pedagogical management in the improvement of teaching performance. Quispe P et al. 2020 Pedagogical management and teaching performance
The Impact of leadership and the school climate on teacher job satisfaction in Latin America. Martínez G et al. 2017 Educational leadership
Teacher performance as a factor associated with educational quality in Latin America. Escribano H et al. 2018 Teaching performance
School Management: Pedagogical leadership and school improvement. Rodriguez G et al. 2020 Pedagogical leadership
Thesis The managerial leadership in the performance of basic education teachers in the years 2015 to 2019. Dueñez P et al. 2021 Managerial leadership and teaching performance
Influence of managerial leadership on teacher performance, Virú 2020 Sánchez L et al. 2021 Managerial leadership and teaching performance
The managerial pedagogical leadership and the teaching performance in the public educational institutions of the primary level belonging to the Network N °16, of the UGEL 03, Lima, 2018. Antonio M et al. 2020 Managerial pedagogical leadership and teaching performance
Management leadership and teaching performance at educational institution 1278, La Molina. Aguilar L et al. 2018 Managerial leadership and teaching performance
Approach to the concept of Teacher performance, a review conceptual on its delimitation. Martínez R et al. 2017 Teaching performance
The 4 domains of the good teacher performance framework. Minedu J et al. 2017 Teaching performance
The 9 competences of the framework of good teaching performance. Minedu J et al. 2017 Teaching performance
Good Teaching Performance framework to improve your practice as a teacher and guide your students' learning. Minedu J et al. 2012 Teaching performance
Total: 20

Discussion

In order to respond to the objective of study, which is to describe and explain what is the relevance of managerial pedagogical leadership in good teaching performance?, the bibliographic review article has focused on the search for different sources of consultation (indexed journals, scientific articles, theses and reference texts, which have been studied and presented in (Table 1) for its interpretation highlighting the

most relevant aspects where it has been possible to appreciate, that the managerial pedagogical leadership and the good teaching performance in educational institutions, where according to Sánchez he maintains that "from the educational perspective it has also been recognized that leadership in its modality of pedagogical leadership has turned out to be one of the three success factors of educational organizations" [41].

Complementing this information is Antonio who mentions that pedagogical leadership "or "instructive" has its origin in the early 70s, with the study of "effective schools". These schools are characterized by having managers with highly outstanding leadership, who promote an educational quality focused on a pedagogical intervention." Through what both authors inferred, it can be stated that pedagogical leadership comes to be present in educational centres in order to obtain better learning from students, bringing them quality teaching through their teachers, who are responsible for being part of said leadership imposed by the direct or director of their educational institution [42].

On the other hand, Rafael et al. argues that "teacher performance consists of the various attitudes and aptitudes of the teacher, they are observable, objective, measurable to do pedagogical and present in the teaching-learning and evaluation process". Likewise, Dueñez states that "teaching performance translates as a set of activities carried out by the teacher within the so-called learning sessions, fulfilling his duties as a trainer of citizens in educational institutions". Both authors maintain positions that complement each other, providing a direct relationship between those who express, where teaching performance is involved by a strategic capacity to perform different activities that come to be the functions of teachers to their students, where their different teaching techniques come to be of enriching value for the impulse of the desire to learn from the same students, all this done with the purpose not only of training future professionals but of creating future citizens of good that manage to provide value not only to their family or to the centre of which they will soon come to be responsible, also for the progress of the country that day by day sees them grow in their academic training.

Rosas argues that "the relationship between good management or managerial leadership and the performance of teachers in the classroom is important." Adding relevant information to this position, Aguilar points out that "managerial leadership has the potential to impact student learning outcomes."

These authors refer to the importance of what comes to be the managerial leadership with a great focus the importance of obtaining results in the learning of their students, related to the performance of the teachers that comes to give in the classroom through the interaction of the teachers with their students. This managerial leadership is given in greater importance when the effects that the leader has on others is evident both in the capture of new instructions and knowledge [43].

Mallma referring to Minedu mentions "it is recognized that the director must manage the conditions for the best of learning and guide the pedagogical processes for the improvement of learning". On the other hand, Leiva et al. mention that if what is sought is to improve teaching performance, emphasis must first be placed on teacher accompaniment, generating instances that manage to promote a perspective of service". Under the positions of these authors, it is denoted that while there is a concern on the part of the director to manage relevant and important material for its dissemination through himself to his teaching staff, there is also the concern of teacher educators to generate in themselves the will to service, that which manage to motivate their good action through good teaching, which has an impact on good teaching performance.

By way of conclusion, it is evident that there is enough information regarding the variables studied in this review article, which come to be Management Pedagogical Leadership and Good Teaching Performance, managing to respond to the relevance of these variables, is that the director of an educational institution must promote a fluid communication with its teaching staff in order that they are involved in the leadership imposed by the director of the school in which they are working.

The level of perception of this variable on teacher performance is high level by demonstrating that if there is direct pedagogical leadership there will also be good teaching performance since the leader motivates others to learn new knowledge and create relevant strategies for students in order to bring quality teaching to them.

Conclusion

Finally, it is considered of the utmost importance to carry out a review of the different documents with information on both variables since they provide enriching information for the preparation of future studies on managerial pedagogical leadership and good teaching performance. Through this research it was possible to determine that leadership in a director of an Educational Institution fulfils a primary role for the educational quality of its students, which is to instruct its entire teaching staff with the institutional objectives set at the beginning with the achievement of goals and objectives.

References

INDEXATION OF THE JOURNAL
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