DEVELOPMENT AND VALIDATION OF NEGATIVE SELF-IMAGE INVENTORY
Objective: The aim of this study was to develop and validate the Negative Self Image Inventory (NSII). This inventory assesses the emotional and behavioural manifestations that characterize dissatisfaction with real or imagined defects in physical appearance. The 40-item inventory comprised self-descriptive statements which participants were required to respond to on a 6-point modified likert-type format ranging from 6 (strongly agree) to 1 (strongly disagree). Methods: Participants for the study were 500 keep-fit exercisers, in the age range of 16 – 54. Initial item collation of NSII comprised 95 items which were systematically reworked and pruned down to 66 on the basis of their face and content validity. The 66 items were administered to 30 participants in an initial pilot study. Difficult-to-understand items were dropped to reduce the scale to 44 items. An inter-item correlation was performed with Pearson Product Moment Statistic technique on the 44 items. The 4 items with weak coefficients were removed to bring NSII to 40 items. The 40 item instrument was administered concurrently with a similar test instrument – Fear of Negative Evaluation (FNE) in order to obtain the concurrent validity of this new scale. Results: Normative scores for NSII were: 88.04 (Males), 93.12 (Females) and 90.58 (M&F). Kaiser-Meyer-Olkin (KMO) measure of sampling adequacy and Bertlett’s test of sphericity indicates a score of 0.71 and a chi square of 1779.31, df = 780, p < 0.05. NSII presented a concurrent validity of 0.51, a split-half reliability coefficient of 0.78 and a Cronbach-alpha reliability of 0.82, with a 2-week test-retest reliability coefficient of 0.82. Conclusion: NSII is potentially a useful instrument for the assessment of anxiety associated with preoccupation with real or imagined defects in physical appearance.