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An Evaluation Study Of Parent Management Training (PMT) Program In Northern Thai

Wachiraporn Arunothong, Saiijai Waewsawangwong


Objectives: To examine the effectiveness of parent management training in Northern Thai parents in both the short and long term and to evaluate parental and environmental factors which contribute and maintain the effectiveness of parenting skills. Methods: A total of 41 primary caregivers were enrolled. All of them had children between 2-15 years old to care for. Enrolled participants had to complete PPT (parent practice test), home situation questionnaire (HSQ) and the oppositional defiant disorder (ODD) part in Swanson, Nolan and Pelham short form (SNAP-IV) questionnaire and were interviewed with the researchers prior to the program, at week 8, week 24 and week 54. They had to join PMT group which was conducted for 3 hours each week for 7 consecutive weeks. Result: The means scores of PPT which measured parenting skills outcome had increased significantly from the baseline and still maintained up to one year while HSQ scores, HSQ troublesome situations and SNAP-IV scores which measured troublesome home situations and disruptive child behaviors, respectively had decreased significantly from baseline and also maintained up to one year. Gender of the children, family income, educational level of the caregivers, activity hours and staying hours showed correlation effects to PPT scores, HSQ scores, HSQ situations and SNAP-IV scores at least p-value <0.05. Overall, sixty- six percent of caregivers who had consistently and continually practiced PMT in correct techniques and appropriate manners had the most benefits while the rest had limited benefits. Conclusion: PMT showed the most immediate benefits and modest benefits in long term up to one year in caregivers who had continually practiced PMT techniques with the correct techniques and appropriate manners. PMT had limited outcomes in families which had depressive primary caregivers, inconsistent parenting style, mal-practicing caregivers, low income, low parent-child activity hours, low parent-child staying hours and low parental education. In terms of child factors, PMT had limited effects in untreated ADHD, adolescent conduct disorder and Pervasive developmental disorder not otherwise specified (PDD NOS) children. ASEAN Journal of Psychiatry, Vol. 13 (1): January - June 2012: XX XX.