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DEPRESSION AND ANXIETY AMONG RENAL CELL CARCINOMA PATIENTS: A CROSS-SECTIONAL STUDY

M Mubarak, K Karki, A Hashmi, G Sultan, R Mohsin, S Rizvi

Abstract


Objective: To determine the frequency of depression and anxiety among renal cell carcinoma (RCC) patients in Pakistan. Methods: A total of 101 patients of either gender (>16 years), diagnosed as RCC staged ≥ 2, were included. Data were collected via Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS) questionnaire. Patients scoring ≥ 11 in HADS-A arm were diagnosed as anxiety and ≥ 11 in HADS-D arm as suffering from depression. Data were analyzed using SPSS version 18.0. Result: Mean age was 54.45 ± 12.48 years and 65 (64.4%) were males. Among these, 47 (46.5%) patients were ≤ 55 years. The mean duration of diagnosis was 6.15 ± 2.74 months. Among all, 37 (36.6%) patients had stage 2 RCC, 36 (35.6%) stage 3 and 28 (27.7%) stage 4 of the disease respectively. The prevalence of depression with co-morbid anxiety was 18.8%. Mean depression score was 8.27 ± 2.36, ranged from 1 to 13. A total of 9 (8.9%) respondents suffer from depression (score ≥11). Mean anxiety score was 8.79 ± 2.21 with the range scores between 4 and 16. A total of 10 (9.9%) respondents had anxiety (score ≥ 11). No significant association of depression was found with gender (p=0.67), age (p=0.44), duration of diagnosis (p=0.70), and TNM stage (p=0.44). However, statistically significant association was observed with educational level (p=0.02) and economic status (p=0.01). The patients who had poor income and low educational level had increased chances of being diagnosed with depression. Regarding anxiety, no significant associations were found (p>0.05). Conclusion: The prevalence of anxiety and depression is relatively low among our RCC cohort. Further, large-scale, long-term and multicenter studies are needed to corroborate these findings.


Keywords


Anxiety, Depression, Quality of Life, Psychotherapy

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