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VALIDATION OF THE MALAY VERSION OF THE KRATOM DEPENDENCE SCALE (KDS) AMONG MALAYSIAN KRATOM (MITRAGYNA SPECIOSA KORTH) USERS

Mohammad Farris Iman Leong Abdullah, Darshan Singh, B. Vicknasingam Kasinather, Nizuwan Azman

Abstract


Introduction: Kratom (Mitragyna speciosa Korth) dependence is a common psychiatric complication associated with regular kratom use in Malaysia. Hence, it is important to assess the severity of kratom dependence among regular kratom users. The Kratom Dependence Scale (KDS) was introduced to evaluate the degree of severity of kratom dependence among users. This study aimed to translate the original English version of the KDS into Malay and examine the psychometric properties of the KDS (Malay) among Malaysian kratom users. Methods: Initially, parallel translation and back translation of the original English version of the KDS was performed. The KDS (Malay) then was administered to 20 active Malaysian kratom users to assess face and content validities in a pilot study. Finally, the final version was administered to 150 active kratom users to evaluate its internal consistency (Cronbach’s α), face and content validities, discriminative validity, and construct validity, i.e. via exploratory factor analysis (EFA). Results: The KDS (Malay) Cronbach’s α of 0.94 exhibited excellent internal consistency. It also demonstrated construct validity, as EFA showed that all items of the KDS (Malay) fit into a single domain, similar to the original English version. Discriminative validity was also demonstrated by the KDS (Malay), as it could differentiate kratom dependent users from non-kratom dependent users. Conclusion: The KDS (Malay) has acceptable psychometric properties and is suitable to assess severity of kratom dependence in Malaysian kratom users.


Keywords


Malaysia, Kratom Users, Validity, Reliability, Kratom Dependence Scale

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