Open Journal Systems

Validation Of The Malay-Translated Version Of The Center For Epidemiological Study – Depression Scale (CES-D)

Nurul Hazrina Mazlan, Affizal Ahmad


Objective: This study aims to establish the validity and reliability of the Malaytranslated version of the CES-D. Methods: This study employed a cross-sectional study design. The participants were female inmates (n=90) from local prisons which were selected based on purposive-selective sampling. The analyses include face validation, factor analysis, and reliability testing. A test-retest was conducted within a one-week interval. Results: The mean score for depression among the participants is 18.97 (SD=6.51). Further descriptive analysis showed that 58.9% of them scored above the mean score, which is considered high. Preliminary construct validation analysis confirmed that factor analysis was appropriate for the Malay-translated version of the CES-D. Furthermore, the factor analysis showed similar factor loadings to the original English version. The total internal consistency of the translated version, which was measured by Cronbach’s alpha coefficient, was equal to 0.75. The test-retest reliability of the total score, measured by Pearson’s correlation was equal to 0.69. Conclusions: Face validity, construct validity, and reliability analysis were found satisfactory for the Malay-translated version of the CES-D. The Malay-translated version of the CES-D was found valid and reliable to be used in future studies, with comparable properties to the original version and to previous studies. ASEAN Journal of Psychiatry, Vol. 15 (1): January – June 2014: 54-65.


Depression; Female Inmates; CES-D; Validation; Reliability

Full Text: